Shizuo Akira, Raul Andino (organisateur), Bruce Beutler, Stephen Cusack, Ding Shou-Wei, Takashi Fujita, Akira Tajima-Goto, Otto Haller, Jules Hoffmann, Veit Hornung, Jean-Luc Imler (organisateur), Karim Majzoub, Carine Meignin, Eric Miska, Jan Rehwinkel, Carla Saleh, Rotem Sorek, Volker Thiel, Joao Trindade Marques, Ronald van Rij, Olivier Voinnet, Friedemann Weber
by Jean-Luc Imler
August 27 – September 1, 2012
Innate immunity is the first line host-defense that operates to contain infections in all organisms. Activation of this response relies on the sensing of molecular patterns present in the infecting microorganism but absent from the host. Among pathogens, viruses pose a particular challenge to the innate immune system. Indeed, these intracellular parasites are intimately associated with their host cell, and use many of its enzymatic machineries for replication and expression of their genomes. Nevertheless, it is now clearly established that all cells are equipped with sensors detecting the presence of viral ribonucleic acids (RNAs) in infected cells, and triggering immunity. This immunity can be either based on the production of small RNA species targeting the virus, or on the induction of proteins, such as the interferons (IFN) and the products of IFN stimulated genes. A group of scientists working in a range of different models (bacteria, plants, invertebrate and vertebrate animals) gathered in Les Treilles the last week of August 2012 to discuss how viral RNAs are sensed by the innate immune system.
Key words: Virus, Immunity, RNA, interferon, RNA interference, infection